International agreements concluded by Germany in 2021

Published: 11 January 2022 Authors: Stefan Talmon and Zoé Flöer

In 2021, Germany signed some 80 bilateral agreements. By far the most bilateral agreements were concluded with the United States concerning the exemption and benefits of US enterprises serving US troops in Germany under the Supplementary Agreement to the NATO Status of Forces Agreement. In addition, Germany concluded some 12 multilateral treaties during that period and signed numerous non-legally binding international agreements such as Memoranda of Understanding and Declarations of Intent. The following is an incomplete list compiled from public sources:

Bilateral treaties

2021/01/06Agreement with Malawi concerning development cooperation, signed in Lilongwe
2021/01/12Protocol amending the Convention of 30 March 2010 between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Federal Republic of Germany for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income and Capital, signed in London
2021/01/14Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “Armed Forces Services Corporation” (No. DOCPER-TC-57-11), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/01/14Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “Beshenich Muir & Associates, LLC” (No. DOCPER-AS-134-03), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/01/14Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “Cybermedia Technologies, Inc.” (No. DOCPER-TC-70-02), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/01/14Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “Magellan Healthcare, Inc.” (No. DOCPER-TC-80-01), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/01/14Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “FAR Government, Inc.” (No. DOCPER-TC-88-01), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/01/14Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “Sterling Medical Associates, Inc.” (No. DOCPER-TC-07-77), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/01/14Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “Management Systems International, Inc.” (No. DOCPER-AS-164-01), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/01/14Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “Sterling Medical Associates, Inc.” (No. DOCPER-TC-07-76), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/01/14Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “Sterling Medical Associates, Inc.” (No. DOCPER-TC-07-78), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/01/14Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “Spinvi Consulting, LLC” (No. DOCPER-IT-31-01), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/01/18Agreement with the UN Development Programme (UNDP) concerning financial support of the UN Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL), signed in Tripoli
2021/01/19Protocol with Ireland amending the Agreement of 30 March 2011 between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Republic of Ireland for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income and on Capital, signed in Dublin
2021/01/27Three agreements with Albania concerning financial cooperation, signed in Tirana
2021/01/28Agreement with the Government of Uzbekistan concerning financial cooperation 2019, signed in Tashkent
2021/02/03Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “Sterling Medical Associates, Inc.” (No. DOCPER-TC-07-79), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/02/19Protocol with Cyprus amending the Agreement of 18 February 2011 between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Republic of Cyprus for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income and on Capital, signed in Nicosia
2021/02/24Programme agreement for the period 2021-24 with Namibia, signed in Windhoek
2021/03/10Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “Sterling Medical Associates, Inc.” (No. DOCPER-TC-07-80), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/03/10Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “Calibre Systems, Inc.” (No. DOCPER-TC-61-03), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/03/10Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “LinkVisum Consulting Group, Inc.” (No. DOCPER-TC-90-01), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/03/19Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc.” (No. DOCPER-AS-39-46), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/03/19Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc.” (No. DOCPER-AS-39-47), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/03/19Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “Caci Nss, LLC” (No. DOCPER-AS-151-03), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/03/22Agreement with Japan concerning the security of [classified] information, signed in Tokyo
2021/03/24Protocol amending the Agreement of 12 April 2012 between the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Federal Republic of Germany for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income and Capital, signed in The Hague
2021/03/24Agreement with the Government of Nepal concerning financial cooperation 2019 (project: “Promotion of solar energy in rural and semi-urban areas II”), signed in Kathmandu
2021/03/29Agreement with the Government of Ghana regarding technical cooperation in 2020, signed in Accra
2021/03/29Agreement with the Government of Guinea concerning financial cooperation, effected by exchange of notes on March 10 and March 29 in Conakry
2021/04/12Agreement with the Government of Rwanda concerning financial cooperation 2020, signed in Kigali
2021/04/12Agreement with the Government of Senegal, concerning financial cooperation 2020, signed in Dakar
2021/04/28Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “PowerTrain, Inc.” (No. DOCPER-TC-81-02), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/04/28Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “Sterling Medical Associates, Inc.” (No. DOCPER-TC-07-81), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/04/28Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “General Dynamics Information Technology, Inc.” (No. DOCPER-TC-40-02), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/04/28Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “Armed Forces Services Corporation dba Magellan Federal” (No. DOCPER-TC-91-01), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/05/04Agreement with the Minister of Defence of France on the deployment of a French liaison officer to the command Armed Forces Base (“Streitkräftebasis”) and Cyber and Information Room of the Bundeswehr, signed in Berlin
2021/05/10Agreement with the Government of Burkina Faso concerning financial cooperation, effected by exchange of notes on 12 April and 10 May 2021 in Ouagadougou
2021/05/11Agreement with the Government of Namibia concerning financial cooperation – Loan 2019, signed in Windhoek
2021/05/17Cooperation agreement with the East African Community (EAC), signed in Arusha
2021/05/19Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “360 Patriot Enterprises LLC” (No. DOCPER-TC-77-02), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/05/19Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “Kapili Services, LLC” (No. DOCPER-TC-84-01), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/05/20Agreement with Egypt concerning financial cooperation, signed in Cairo
2021/05/21Agreement with the Government of Mexico concerning financial cooperation (Funding for the establishment of new federal protected areas I + II (FINANP)), signed in Mexico-City
2021/06/01Agreement with the Government of India concerning financial cooperation 2020, signed in New Delhi
2021/06/09Agreement with the Government of Serbia concerning cooperation in the field of defence, signed in Belgrade
2021/06/10Agreement with the Government of Sri Lanka concerning financial cooperation 2019 signed in Colombo
2021/06/14Agreement with the Government of Nepal concerning financial cooperation 2020, signed in Kathmandu
2021/06/14Agreement with Togo concerning development cooperation, signed in Lomé
2021/06/20Agreement with the Government of Bangladesh concerning financial cooperation 2020, signed in Dhaka
2021/06/21Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “Georgia Tech Applied Research Corporation” (No. DOCPER-AS-166-01), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/06/23Agreement with Indonesia concerning technical cooperation, signed in Jakarta
2021/06/24Agreement with the Mekong River Commission concerning financial assistance, signed in Vientiane
2021/06/24Agreement with the Government of Laos concerning financial cooperation, effected by exchange of notes on 10 June and 24 June in Vientiane
2021/07/08Agreement with Malawi on development cooperation, singed in Lilongwe
2021/07/13Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “ManTech Advanced Systems International, Inc.” (No. DOCPER-IT-29-01), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/07/13Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “Sterling Medical Associates, Inc.” (No. DOCPER-TC-07-49), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/07/13Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “Inverness Technologies, Inc.” (No. DOCPER-TC-22-02), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/07/13Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “Armed Forces Services Corporation” (No. DOCPER-TC-57-07), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/07/13Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “Cybermedia Technologies, Inc.” (No. DOCPER-TC-70-02), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/07/13Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “Appereon Business Solutions, Inc.” (No. DOCPER-TC-78-01), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/07/13Agreement with the Government of the United States of America regarding the granting of exemptions and benefits to enterprises charged with providing troop care services for the United States Forces stationed in the Federal Republic of Germany “Sterling Medical Associates, Inc.” (No. DOCPER-TC-07-48), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/07/28Project agreement with Botswana concerning the increase of the Covid-19 testing capacities of the National Health Laboratory, signed in Gaborone
2021/08/30Agreement with the Government of France concerning in field of tactical air transport, signed in Paris
2021/09/16Agreement with the Palestine National Authority concerning development cooperation, signed in Ramallah
2021/09/21Agreement with the Government of Jordan concerning financial cooperation 2020, signed in Amman
2021/09/21Agreement with the Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management of the Netherlands concerning technical agreements on cross-border traffic of vehicles and vehicle combinations with excess length, signed in The Hague
2021/09/30Voluntary contribution agreement with the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, signed in Geneva
2021/10/08Funding agreements with the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) in support of UNIDO’s thematic Trust Fund on Trade-Related Capacity-Building (TCB Trust Fund), signed in Vienna
2021/10/08Funding agreements with the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) in support of UNIDO’s geographic Trust Fund for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC Trust Fund), signed in Vienna
2021/10/08Agreement with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Pakistan concerning the Women’s Access to Justice Project in Balochistan, signed in Islamabad
2021/10/08Protocol with Mexico amending the Agreement of 9 July 2008 between the Federal Republic of Germany and the United Mexican States for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income and on Capital, signed in Mexico City
2021/10/15Agreement with the Government of Lithuania concerning the exchange and mutual protection of classified information, signed in Vilnius
2021/11/02Agreement with Pakistan concerning financial cooperation, signed in Islamabad
2021/11/06Agreement with Zambia concerning financial and technical cooperation, signed in Lusaka
2021/11/09Agreement with Georgia concerning financial cooperation, signed in Tbilisi
2021/11/18Financing agreement with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), signed in Geneva
2021/11/24Financial contribution agreement with the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), effected by exchange of notes in Berlin and Geneva
2021/12/01Financial contribution agreement with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), signed in New York
2021/12/03Agreement with Peru concerning technical cooperation, signed in Lima

Multilateral treaties

2021/02/09Amendment to the Convention on the collection, deposit and reception of waste generated during navigation on the Rhine and other inland waterways of 9 September 1996 (CDNI), adopted on 22 June 2017, deposit of instrument of acceptance in Strasbourg
2021/03/30Agreement on the status and functions of the International Commission on Missing Persons, done at Brussels on 15 December 2014, deposit of instrument of accession in The Hague
2021/03/29European Social Charter (revised), opened for signature on 3 May 1996, deposit of instrument of ratification in Strasbourg
2021/06/02Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in Asia (ReCAAP), opened for signature on 11 November 2004, deposit of instrument of accession in Singapore
2021/06/23International Labour Organization Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention (No. 169), adopted on 27 June 1989, deposit of instrument of ratification with the Director-General of the International Labour Office in Geneva
2021/08/30Agreement with France and Spain concerning the Next Generation Weapon System within a Future Combat Air System programme (Implementation Agreement 3), signed in Paris
2021/09/10Framework Agreement of the International Solar Alliance, opened for signature during the CoP-22 at Marrakesh on 15 November 2016, deposit of instrument of accession in New Delhi
2021/09/15Protocol with the Governments of France and the United Kingdom extending for the period 2024 to 2033 the Convention of 19 January 1967, as amended by the Protocol of 6 July 1971, on the Construction and Operation of a Very High Flux Reactor, signed in Paris
2021/09/27Protocol to the Agreement on a Unified Patent Court on provisional application, deposit of instrument of ratification with the General Secretariat of the Council of the European Union in Brussels
2021/09/30International Labour Organization Maternity Protection Convention (No. 183), adopted on 15 June 2000, deposit of instrument of ratification with the Director-General of the International Labour Office in Geneva
2021/10/14Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition, adopted on 31 May 2001, instrument of accession deposited with the UN Secretary-General
2021/11/15Agreement with Indonesia concerning maritime cooperation, signed in Berlin

Non-legally binding international agreements

2021/02/25Joint Declaration with the Ministry of Health of Indonesia concerning health cooperation, signed in a virtual ceremony in Jakarta and Berlin
2021/03/02Joint Declaration of Intent with Azerbaijan concerning the continuation of cooperation in the field of professional development of Azerbaijani entrepreneurs and managers, signed in Baku
2021/03/11Joint Declaration of Intent between the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy and the Ministry of Energy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on hydrogen cooperation, signed virtually in Berlin and Riyadh
2021/03/16Memorandum of Understanding between the Department of Natural Resources of Canada and the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy concerning the establishment of an energy partnership, signed virtually in St. John’s and Berlin
2021/04/12Joint Declaration of intent with the Ministry of Industry of Indonesia and the German Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy concerning cooperation in the field of quality infrastructure, signed in a virtual meeting in Berlin and Jakarta
2021/04/28Joint Declaration of Intent between the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China for increased cooperation in climate research with the goal of climate neutrality, signed in Beijing and Berlin
2021/04/28Joint Declaration of Intent between the Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs and the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security of the People’s Republic of China on further deepening cooperation, signed in Beijing and Berlin
2021/04/28Sino-German Health Action Plan 2021-2023, signed in Beijing and Berlin
2021/04/28Joint Declaration of Intent between the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture and the State Administration for Market Regulation of the People’s Republic of China on cooperation in the field of food safety regulation, signed in Beijing and Berlin
2021/04/28Understanding between the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and the China International Development Cooperation Agency (CIDCA) to strengthen the exchange on international development cooperation, signed in Beijing and Berlin
2021/04/28Joint Declaration of Intent between the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and the Ministry of Ecology and Environment of the People’s Republic of China on cooperation in the areas of the environment, climate change and sustainable development, signed in Beijing and Berlin
2021/04/28Joint Declaration of Intent between the Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure and the Ministry of Transport of the People’s Republic of China on cooperation in the field of dangerous goods transports by road, signed in Beijing and Berlin
2021/04/28Joint ministerial declaration of intent between members of the G7 concerning cooperation in the fields of internet safety; data free flow with trust; electronic transferable records; digital technical standards; digital competition and critical digital, telecoms, and ICT supply chains, signed in a virtual meeting
2021/05/17Letter of Intent between the Federal Minister of Transport and Digital Infrastructure and the Transport Ministers of the EU Member States as well as Switzerland and Norway for the TransEuropExpress 2.0 programme, signed virtually
2021/05/19Joint Declaration of Intent with Estonia concerning development cooperation, signed in a virtual ceremony
2021/05/31Addendum No. 1 to the Joint Declaration of Intent of 23 September 2014 between the Governments of Peru, Germany, Norway and the United Kingdom on Cooperation on reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) and promoting sustainable development in Peru, signed in a virtual ceremony
2021/06/03Memorandum of Understanding with Jordan on enhanced military cooperation, singed in Amman
2021/06/10Joint Declaration of Intent with the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Australia concerning the enhancement of the strategic partnership between Germany and Australia, signed in Canberra and Berlin
2021/06/13Declaration of Intent with the Minister of Energy of Australia concerning the establishment of the ‘Germany-Australia Hydrogen Accord’ effected by exchange of notes in Berlin
2021/06/24Letter of Intent with the United States of America on advancing Holocaust education, signed in Berlin
2021/06/25Declaration of Intent with Tunisia con future cooperation within the framework of the Ta’ziz Partnership for Democracy, signed in Berlin
2021/06/29Declaration of Intent with Chile to establish a German-Chilean task force on hydrogen, signed in Berlin
2021/06/30Joint Declaration of intent with the Secretary of State for Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Affairs of the United Kingdom concerning cooperation on foreign and security policy issues, signed using a written procedure in London and Berlin
2021/07/21Joint Statement of the United States and Germany on Support for Ukraine, European Energy Security, and our Climate Goals
2021/07/29Joint Declaration of Intent with Spain on cooperation in the field of cross-border digital identity based on the principles of self-sovereign identity (SSI), signed in Berlin and Madrid
2021/08/25Joint Communiqué of Intent between the National Planning Commission of Namibia and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research concerning the establishment of a hydrogen partnership between Germany and Namibia, signed in Windhoek and Berlin
2021/08/27Joint Declaration of Intent between the Ministry of Trade of Ghana and the Ministry of Trade and Industry and the Ghana Standards Authority (GSA) and the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy of the Germany and the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing for Germany (BAM) concerning the collaboration on testing and standards development for construction materials and chemicals, signed in Berlin
2021/08/31Memorandum of Understanding between the United States Food and Drug Administration and the Federal Institute For Risk Assessment concerning the sharing of information and facilitation of collaborative research projects, effected by exchange of notes in Berlin on August 24 and in Silver Spring, MD on August 31
2021/09/03Joint Declaration of Intent with Ethiopia on forging an institutional partnership on digital economy and digital policy in Ethiopia under the Digital Ethiopia 2025 Strategy, signed in Berlin
2021/09/10Joint Letter of Intent with Pakistan on climate partnership, signed in Berlin
2021/09/21Letter of Intent with Australia for a Military Space Partnership, signed in Berlin
2021/09/22Joint Declaration of Intent with Finland concerning cooperation and exchange of best practices in the field of self-sovereign identity, signed in Helsinki
2021/10/13Memorandum of Understanding with the Director General of the Nigerian National Commission for Museums and Monuments (NCMM) and the Director General for Cultural Affairs at the Federal Foreign Office concerning museum cooperation, signed in Abuja
2021/10/15Memorandum of Understanding between the World Bank and the Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) concerning cooperation to promote development results for green, resilient and inclusive development (GRID), signed in Washington D.C.
2021/11/02Joint Declaration of Intent with the United Arab Emirates on the establishment of a bilateral task force on hydrogen and synthetic fuels (Emirati-German hydrogen task force), signed in Dubai
2021/11/23Joint Declaration of Intent with Singapore on road safety, signed in Singapore
2021/12/01Memorandum of Understanding of the Pentalateral Energy Forum (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Switzerland) on risk preparedness in the electricity sector, signed in Brussels
2021/12/02Joint Declaration of Intent with Thailand on the extension of the German-Thai Railway Association, signed in Bangkok
Category: Law of treaties

DOI: 10.17176/20220627-172603-0

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Authors

  • Stefan Talmon is Professor of Public Law, Public International Law and European Union Law, and Director at the Institute of Public International Law at the University of Bonn. He is also a Supernumerary Fellow of St. Anne’s College, Oxford, and practices as a Barrister from Twenty Essex, London. He is the editor of GPIL.

  • Zoé Flöer studies law at the University of Bonn. She is also a student research assistant at the Bonn Institute for Public International Law

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